Compact Water Handling
Getting the water quality and water chemistry right is fundamental to ensuring a decent rate of return on water-based enhanced oil recovery investments.

Boiler Feed Water Degasification Using Membrane Contactors - New Methods for Optimizing Performance
Liqui-Cel® Contactors have been used to remove dissolved oxygen in boiler feed water systems for years.  This paper discusses how Membrane Contactors can be optimized as boiler feed water deaerators for oxygen removal from water as well as carbon dioxide removal from water. The report also highlights advantages of Liqui-Cel systems over conventional deaerators and forced draft degasifiers.

Membrane Contactors: An Introduction To The Technology
This paper provides a good overview to Membrane Contactor technology. Principles of Membrane Contactor Operation and mass transfer principles are discussed.

Using Gas Transfer Membrane to Deaerate Cold Boiler Feed Water Reduces Steam Duty and Operating Costs
This case study gives an account of how Gas Transfer Membranes (GTM), enabled a refinery to deaerate cold boiler feed water to replace the steam duty, associated with traditional steam deaeration, with waste heat. Significant energy cost savings were realized resulting in a very quick payback for the refinery. The article is courtesy of PTQ and was originally printed in the Q1 2012 issue.

Using Membrane Contactors For CO2 Removal To Extend Resin Bed Life
This case study discusses operating savings and efficiency improvements at City Public Service in San Antonio, Texas.  They chose Liqui-Cel Contactors over a forced draft deaerator for CO2 removal from water at their plant to extand resin bed life, lower operating costs, and do away with chemical addition.

Membrane Contactors are used as a Boiler Feedwater Deaerator
Read how Membrane Contactors are used as a Boiler Feedwater Deaerator to reduce blow down frequency and chemical usage.

Lucent Technologies Low Level Oxygen Removal
This article summarizes a case study where Liqui-Cel® Membrane deaerators are used at Lucent Technologies to remove oxygen from water to 10 ppb.

Advances in Gas Control Technology in the Brewery
This paper discusses various technology advancements in the Brewery. It gives a good overview of the benefits of using Membranes and Liqui-Cel® Membrane Contactors for gas control with beer.

Deareation: Degasification Of Water Using Novel Membrane Technology
This paper provides an overview of the theory and principles of Membrane Contactor Operation. Similar but a little less detailed compared to the Membrane Contactor: Introduction To paper.

Membrane Processing for Water Treatment in the Semiconductor Industry
This paper discusses the overall UPW loop in a Semiconductor plant. Membrane Degasification is stied as being the technology of the future for deoxygenating to 1 ppb.

Meeting Water Quality Specifications for 300 mm Processing
This paper reviews historical to current UPW specifications for 300 mm processing. More specifically, the paper discusses state of the art technologies, including Liqui-Cel® Contactors, used to meet the new specifications.

Membranes: TOC Reduction Using Membrane Technology
Liqui-Cel Membrane Contactors are used to reduce TOC, O2 and CO2 in this Honeywell System in Plymouth, Mass.

UltraPure Water: Systems for Microelectronics
This article, discusses the use of Liqui-Cel® Membrane Contactors as the degassing and oxygen removal technology used in new semiconductor plants instead of older technologies such as vacuum towers.

Osmotic Distillation using Liqui-Cel® Membrane Contactors
This paper discusses the benefits of using Liqui-Cel® Contactors for juice concentration by osmotic distillation.

VLSI chooses Liqui-Cel Contactors over Conventional Vacuum Tower for Deaeration
This paper describes the process and technology that VLSI evaluated for their San Antonio Texas Plant. Liqui-Cel® Contactors were chosen over vacuum deaeration for oxygen removal of < 1ppb.

Degasification of Boiler Feed Water with Liqui-Cel® Membrane Contactors
This paper discusses how Liqui-Cel® Degasifiers can be optimized as boiler feed water deaerators for oxygen removal from water and carbon dioxide removal from water. Advantages of Liqui-Cel® systems over conventional deaerators and forced draft degasifiers are also highlighted.

Mansfield Brewery Uses Liqui-Cel® Membrane Contactors to Nitrogenate Beer
Nitrogen is added to beer with Liqui-Cel® Contactors to control CO2 content and produce a smooth keg beer that mimics cask–conditioned beer while maintaining the ‘head’ characteristics of a keg beer.

Membranes for Oxygen Removal in 300mm Semiconductor Processing
This paper discusses how low oxygen specifications in 300mm semiconductor processing can be met with degasification membranes.

CO2 Injection at Pepsi Plant Using Membrane Technology
The paper summarizes the benefits of using Liqui-Cel® Contactors to carbonate at a Pepsi plant.

Liquid-Liquid Extraction of Aroma Compounds with Hollow Fiber Contactor
This paper details how Liqui-Cel® Membrane Contactors have been successfully used for the extraction of aroma compounds for the food industry. The paper was completed by Unilever Research in the Netherlands and was published in the AIChE Journal, August 2001, Vol. 47, No 8.

  • © 2018 3M Company. 3M Industrial Group | Separation and Purification Sciences Division
  • Legal
  • Privacy
  • Site Map