Oxygen Removal from Water / Deoxygenation

O2 Removal From Water

Technical Briefs

CCS 101: Integration of Membrana Ultrafiltration and Gas Transfer Membrane Technologies Produces High Quality Water and Controls Corrosion in Cooling Water System
 By incorporating Membrana UF and Gas Transfer Membrane (GTM) a resort customer was able to reduce the risk of contaminating its cooling water and protect other system components from corrosion. The compact systems exceeded performance expectations and reduced maintenance and operating costs while maximizing the available space.

TB 83: Liqui-Cel® Membrane Contactors Remove Dissolved Gases from Water in Many Hydrocarbon Recovery and Process Applcations
 Dissolved gas control in water is common in many hydrocarbon recovery and process applications. Minimizing the environmental impact, improving operating efficiency, avoiding process issues and protecting system components are just a few of the reasons degassing is necessary. Liqui-Cel® 8 x 40 and 8 x 80 High Pressure Membrane Contactors introduce a new method for managing dissolved gas control that may substantially reduce chemical usage, requires a much smaller footprint and weighs considerably less.

TB 88: Technology Qualification of Liqui-Cel® Membrane Contactors for Deoxygenation of Low Salinity Water for Polymer Flooding
Removing dissolved oxygen from injection water to prevent reservoir souring and bacteria growth is a necessary consideration in any water flooding process. Weight is also a consideration to take into account. For these reasons, Liqui-Cel® Contactors were recently evaluated by RO Solutions for use in an offshore polymer flooding plant. Liqui-Cel® Contactors were acknowledged as an approved deoxygenation technology that...

TB 81: Advanced Membrane Degassing Technology for Radiation Source Term Reduction and Corrosion Control in Nuclear Power Plants
 Dissolved gas control in a nuclear power plant’s water system can be essential to reduce radiation source term. Controlling dissolved gases can also reduce the formation of unwanted radionuclides, such as 14C and oxides of 60Co, and alleviate Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking (PWSCC). Recently, several nuclear power plants have installed Liqui-Cel® Membrane Contactors into their water systems to remove dissolved gases to help reduce the formation of radionuclides and help protect operators and the environment.

TB 80: Oxygen Removal from Feedwater of a Central District Heating System
In central district heating systems heated water from power plants is distributed to residential and industrial areas by insulated piping networks. Large storage tanks are typically used to safely store heat for use during periods of peak load demand. To prevent internal corrosion and to increase the lifetime of piping and storage tanks, inlet water should be deoxygenated with Liqui-Cel® Membrane Contactors.

TB 76: Liqui-Cel® Membrane Contactor Degassing System Installed to Increase Well Pumping Efficiency in Rockland County New York
This technical brief describes how Liqui-Cel Membrane Contactors were evalulated and used to improve the flow rates of wells operated by United Water of New York (UWNY) by removing dissolved gasses. The reduced operating costs and lower capital requirements gave Liqui-Cel Contactors the edge over competing technologies.

TB 79: Degassing Sea Water was Never This Compact, Efficient, and Adaptable
This technical brief introduces Liqui-Cel® Membrane Contactors as an advanced, modular option for use on off-shore oil platforms. The Membrane Contactor skid alternative offers significant advantages over a vaccum tower, including reductions in the weight and footprint. 

TB 63: Liqui-Cel® Membrane Contactors are widely used in the soft drink and brewing industries to Control dissolved gasses
This paper provides an overview of the principles of Membrane Contactor Operation for the Beverage market and why they should be used to save operating costs and improve processes.

TB 62: Liqui-Cel® Membrane Degassing Modules Improve Ice Production at the Ice Palace in Moscow
This case study describes an innovative approach that was used by the Ice Palace in Moscow to produce clearer ice in their arena.

TB 50: Taiwan O2 CO2 Removal Case Study
Power plant uses Liqui-Cel® degassing contactors for CO2 Removal from water.

TB 48: Nuclear Power Plant Uses Liqui-Cel® Contactors for Dissolved Oxygen Removal to Prevent Corrosion
Case Study demonstrating the use of Liqui-Cel® Membrane Contactors for O2 and CO2 removal from water without chemicals.

TB 47: The Kori Nuclear Power Plant Uses Liqui-Cel Membrane Contactors for Liquid Degassing
Kori Nuclear Power Plant uses Liqui-Cel® degasifiers to remove O2 to prevent corrosion in their boiler feedwater system.

TB 45: Boiler Feed Water Degassing Lowers Operations Costs and Chemical Usage
Boiler Feed Degassing system in China Removes O2 from water for corrosion control and lowers operating costs.

TB 44: Precise Control of Dissolved O2 and N2
Precise Control of O2 and N2 gasses in Semiconductor wafer cleaning applications.

TB 39: Japanese Brewery Uses Liqui-Cel Contactors in 3 Breweries
Liqui-Cel® degasifiers reduce corrosion by removing O2 and CO2 from water at Kirin Brewery.

TB 34: Liqui-Cel® Membrane Contactors are used to Improve Performance of Megasonic Cleaning
Megasonic Cleaning challenges are solved with total gas control using Liqui-Cel® Contactors. Remove O2 from water while adding N2 to water.

TB 33: Oxygen Removal from Water to 3 ppb at IMEC
Semiconductor research facility utilizes Liqui-Cel® degassing contactors for 3 ppb O2 removal from water.

TB 15: Deoxygenated Make-Up Water in Power Plant Using Liqui-Cel® Contactors
This power plant case study discusses using Liqui-Cel® degassers for oxygen removal from water and corrosion control.

TB 10: Baltimore Gas and Electric-Uses Liqui-Cel® Deoxygenators in Nuclear Power Plant
Power plant uses Liqui-Cel® Degassers for oxygen removal from water.

More Tech Briefs

More Info

Need to select the right product for your application? Read our Technical Specs for the entire Liqui-Cel® Membrane Contactor product line.

Liqui-Cel® Membrane Contactors are used around the world for deoxygenation of water and other liquids. Oxygen (O2) negatively impacts many processes. It is corrosive, it can impact product shelf life and it can cause low product yields. Liqui-Cel® Contactors offer easy-to-operate, modular solutions for degassing and oxygen (O2) removal from water without chemicals and without large vacuum towers or deaerators. Liqui-Cel® Contactors also offer the benefit of simultaneous oxygen and carbon dioxide removal from water as well as N2 control with one step.

Boiler Feed Water Deaerators and Corrosion Control

In the power and industrial areas, dealing with corrosion is a leading cause of operating and maintenance costs. Piping, boilers and equipment are susceptible to corrosion if deaeration is not present or strictly controlled to ensure the magnetite layer is maintained (OT – Oxygenate Treatment).
Many plants are now using Liqui-Cel® Contactors for the deoxygenation of their boiler make-up and feed water. Boiler feedwater deaeration extends boiler and piping life by preventing corrosion of critical parts. Feed water to Heat Storage & Recovery Generators (HRSG) is another area where deoxygenation of the feed water at start-up can prevent costly maintenance and reduce the risk of failure due to corrosion.
Plants that are venting off large volumes of steam to remove dissolved O2 can also remove oxygen using Liqui-Cel Contactors prior to the deaerator. Lowering the deaerator vent rate reduces fuel consumption. This can be a significant cost savings for plants generating steam.

Improving Yields in Semiconductor Applications

In the semiconductor and flat panel/TFT industries, high levels of oxygen can cause lower wafer and flat panel yields. Liqui-Cel® Contactors are the degassing standard in the microelectronics sector where the dissolved oxygen specification is critical. Our contactors can produce <1ppb of dissolved oxygen and carry a performance warranty. We have thousands of systems operating around the world today.

Beverage and Food Processing Applications

Liqui-Cel® Membrane Contactors are used around the world for the deoxygenation of water, beer and other liquids in the food and beverage industry. Oxygen can negatively impact the shelf life, product quality, product consistency and taste. Liqui-Cel® Contactors offer a small, modular, and cost effective means to control the dissolved gasses in the beverage. Beer, wine and juice processing are common applications for our membrane degassers.



Technical Papers

Using Gas Transfer Membrane to Deaerate Cold Boiler Feed Water Reduces Steam Duty and Operating Costs
This case study gives an account of how Gas Transfer Membranes (GTM), enabled a refinery to deaerate cold boiler feed water to replace the steam duty, associated with traditional steam deaeration, with waste heat. Significant energy cost savings were realized resulting in a very quick payback for the refinery. The article is courtesy of PTQ and was originally printed in the Q1 2012 issue.

Membrane Contactors: An Introduction To The Technology
This paper provides a good overview to Membrane Contactor technology. Principles of Membrane Contactor Operation and mass transfer principles are discussed.

Membrane Contactors are used as a Boiler Feedwater Deaerator
Read how Membrane Contactors are used as a Boiler Feedwater Deaerator to reduce blow down frequency and chemical usage.

Lucent Technologies Low Level Oxygen Removal
This article summarizes a case study where Liqui-Cel® Membrane deaerators are used at Lucent Technologies to remove oxygen from water to 10 ppb.

Deareation: Degasification Of Water Using Novel Membrane Technology
This paper provides an overview of the theory and principles of Membrane Contactor Operation. Similar but a little less detailed compared to the Membrane Contactor: Introduction To paper.

Membrane Processing for Water Treatment in the Semiconductor Industry
This paper discusses the overall UPW loop in a Semiconductor plant. Membrane Degasification is stied as being the technology of the future for deoxygenating to 1 ppb.

Meeting Water Quality Specifications for 300 mm Processing
This paper reviews historical to current UPW specifications for 300 mm processing. More specifically, the paper discusses state of the art technologies, including Liqui-Cel® Contactors, used to meet the new specifications.

UltraPure Water: Systems for Microelectronics
This article, discusses the use of Liqui-Cel® Membrane Contactors as the degassing and oxygen removal technology used in new semiconductor plants instead of older technologies such as vacuum towers.

Degasification of Boiler Feed Water with Liqui-Cel® Membrane Contactors
This paper discusses how Liqui-Cel® Degasifiers can be optimized as boiler feed water deaerators for oxygen removal from water and carbon dioxide removal from water. Advantages of Liqui-Cel® systems over conventional deaerators and forced draft degasifiers are also highlighted.

Membranes for Oxygen Removal in 300mm Semiconductor Processing
This paper discusses how low oxygen specifications in 300mm semiconductor processing can be met with degasification membranes.

VLSI chooses Liqui-Cel Contactors over Conventional Vacuum Tower for Deaeration
This paper describes the process and technology that VLSI evaluated for their San Antonio Texas Plant. Liqui-Cel® Contactors were chosen over vacuum deaeration for oxygen removal of < 1ppb.